The Greater Kurdistan Delusion
Tillerson: The United States Does Not Recognize the Kurdish Referendum
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  • Tom

    Let’s be real here: how does an independent Kurdistan undermine the US’s interests, exactly?
    Baghdad has demonstrated that it’s utterly unreliable, Ankara is going off the rails like a train that took a curve too quickly, and Iran thinks it should run the Middle East. I get that we don’t want to just come right out and say “Yes, we want to dismember multiple countries,” but after watching these clowns make already bad situations worse one does start wondering if it’s time to finally acknowledge that Sykes-Picot is done.

    • D4x

      Sec. Tillerson’s statement dated Friday, Sept. 29, NOT Thursday, was a STALL, because 1) he had to go to China re: North Korea; 2) USA priority remains destroying ISIS; 3) no one has asked the USA to be the mediator re: KRG v Iraq, Turkey, Iran; 4) USA consulates in Erbil and Sulaimani remain open; 5) The Shi’a Ashura was sunset Sept. 29-Sept 30. Meanwhile, the news today, Oct. 1, 2017 from Iraqi Kurdistan, where the rival political parties are united, and Sunnis joined Shi’a during Ashura celebrations is very optimistic:
      https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/d5dddb8473f8e961e4a4b3d6770321c79fccfb893f23546270a958cb1e6e65b7.jpg The 2017 International Sulaimani Film Festival. Photo Rudaw “Sulaimani Int’l Film Festival kicks off amid flight ban By A.C. Robinson
      Oct. 1, 2017 10:00 am EDT 7 hours ago SULAIMANI, Kurdistan Region – The week-long 2nd International Sulaimani
      Film Festival (ISFF) is due to start at 06:00pm today, featuring a red carpet
      ceremony and special screening of a Spanish language feature film.

      The red carpet ceremony starts at Talari Huner Art Gallery in Sulaimani. The main hall seats
      1,700 people but Program Manager Lina Raza said they were expecting at least
      2,000 people to attend. … The theme this year is “Culture and Coexistence”. …”
      http://www.rudaw.net/english/culture/01102017

      Since 4:00 pm EDT, Rudaw reports statements from Iraq’s key clerics: Shi’a Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and Sunni Mufti Rafi
      al-Rufai. It seems that Iraq’s Shi’a and Sunnis are united in their support for peaceful negotiations between the KRG and Baghdad:

      http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020176
      Oct. 1, 2017: Erbil welcomes initiative by Iraq’s Ayatollah Sistani for peaceful negotiations

      ERBIL, Kurdistan Region—The Political Leadership of the Kurdistan Region has welcomed a call by Iraq’s Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani for dialogue as something positive that goes in line with the Kurdish position on
      resolving disagreements with the central government through peaceful negotiations.

      Representatives of Kurdish parties said in a public statement on Sunday that Ayatollah
      Sistani’s “call is an important step to protect our principles which are the protection of peace, social security and
      uprooting violence and threats.” http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020176

      http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020177
      Oct. 1, 2017 45 minutes later: “Iraq’s mufti says Baghdad’s ‘oppressions’ pushed Kurdistan to seek independence”

      ERBIL, Kurdistan – The mufti of Iraq’s Sunni community said the Iraqi governments’ oppressions against the Kurds made the nation seek independence. He also said Iraq has become a sectarian state run by Iranian politicians.

      Rafi al-Rufai said through his representative Abdulwahab Ani, that Baghdad’s “baseless” decision
      to cut the Kurdistan Region’s budget share in 2014, …He also highly appreciated the Kurdistan Region for hosting over a million internally displaced persons and refugees when fleeing ISIS.

      “And you want to impose sanctions on Kurds, fight with them and close air and ground ports on them?” he asked.

      Rejecting comments from the Iraqi government authorities who accuse the Kurdsitan Region of partitioning Iraq.

      “The Iraqi government and its parliament, you should cry and not talk for the integrity of Iraq. You yourself partitioned it.”

      The Iraqi Mufti went on to slam the Iraqi government’s “sectarian” police.

      “The main dangerous thing that these governments carried with them was the disgusting sectarianism which partitioned the integrity of this country and spread hatred among the components of this country,” he said.

      “Those running and ruling Iraq are associated with Iranian politicians,.” said the Sunni cleric. “among those is [Iran’s]Qassem
      Solaimani.” …” http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020177

      I want to add that the KRG continues to guarantee the security of the Mosul Dam on the Tigris River. I recall TAI covered that huge risk to Baghdad in 2016, but no time today to find that citation. However, good news from Sept. 6, 2017: “Milestones reached in Mosul Dam repairs 6 September, 2017 By Emily Ashwell
      The main spillway on the Mosul Dam in Iraq has reopened a year after Italian engineering giant Trevi started repairs on the structure.

      Last year the US Embassy in Iraq raised concerns that the dam faces a “serious and unprecedented risk of catastrophic failure” with little warning. It said that if the 11.1bn.m3 dam collapses, some areas could be inundated by up to 21m of water within hours. The risk came after a so-called Islamic State attack on the facility in August 2014 and the subsequent disruption of maintenance operations.

      Some 6,000 tons of solid injections have been carried out. Trevi has had a bespoke automated injecting management system designed.

      Now water levels at the dam are at the same level of 2005 and the spillway has reopened.

      The residential area includes more than one thousand beds, 17 office buildings and even a pizzeria….”
      https://www.newcivilengineer.com/world-view/milestones-reached-in-mosul-dam-repairs/10023143.article

      https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/b5ebfd0187be6c36e54e6939f5841f2ededb7c6b580c7b4ec928a4732c8dd461.jpg
      October 2015 Iraq watershed water-from-the-euphrates-and-tigris-rivers-is-shared-by-turkey-syria-and-Iraq

      I posted yesterday at https://amgreatness.com/2017/09/26/to-be-great-the-u-n-must-defend-democratic-sovereignty/
      “…Turkey, Syria, and Iraq have had many meetings to resolve
      water issues since the 1960’s, but this review stops in 2003. Other reports
      have some meetings until 2011, when Syria’s civil war started.
      http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Tigris-Euphrates_New.htm

      The Mosul dam was a great concern when ISIS took over Mosul, but the Kurds never let ISIS get control of the dam.

      Iraqi Kurds would be ideal arbiters of the water issues between Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. It is probably why Syria is now open to
      negotiation with Rojava after ISIS is destroyed. A good way for Iraqi Kurds to ‘change the conversation’ would be to call for a quadri-lateral with Turkey, Iraq, and Syria on water allocation of the Tigris-Euphrates. …”

      Oh, AB is premature in his conclusions. The KRG is much more likely to hook up with Syrian Kurdish Rojava than be Turkey’s pawn, once ISIS is defeated and destroyed along the Euphrates River in Syria. So sad to always see the negative fear through the lens of the USA being the sole decider/facilitator on earth, always ignoring local news in his posts.

      It was wonderful to read Sistani and Rafi al-Rufai’s statements today.
      Today, I am looking forward to the red carpet fashion in Suleimani, where the USA Consulate remains open. We have good career diplomats in Baghdad and Erbil. No one has yet been nominated for the USA Ambassador to Turkey. We do not have diplomatic relations with Syria and Iran.
      It was good to see Amb. Terry Branstad sitting next to Sec Tillerson in China discussions in the news today.

      https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/4c6920bc8dc66de59b88e82e383be27d601559d6c0e3f370f0300e9773d9720f.png

      • D4x

        First, from February 14, 2017 ” Iraq’s first ever “gentlemen’s fashion club”, Mr Erbil: Using the power of fashion to change the way their region is perceived. To project a more optimistic image — and perhaps enforce social change and reform along the way. https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/eb2e7c4ecfb0d4992a4a5e45b2401c5f66cf96ff48572336c1708dc7825ff7fe.jpg
        “It is a harsh time we are facing and we wanted to overcome it with positive thinking and social changes,” Mr Nauzad told news.com.au . Source: Supplied 02 14 2017 http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/fashion/people/these-well-dressed-men-are-so-much-more-than-average-hipsters/news-story/390787c016fde9c8b9f6472acd171eda

        The news today, Oct. 1, 2017 from Iraq is very positive:
        https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/d5dddb8473f8e961e4a4b3d6770321c79fccfb893f23546270a958cb1e6e65b7.jpg
        The 2017 International Sulaimani Film Festival. Photo Rudaw “Sulaimani Int’l Film Festival kicks off amid flight ban By A.C. Robinson Oct. 1, 2017 10:00 am EDT SULAIMANI, Kurdistan Region – The theme this year is “Culture
        and Coexistence”. …” http://www.rudaw.net/english/culture/01102017

        Since 4:00 pm EDT, Rudaw reports statements from Iraq’s key clerics: Shi’a Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and Sunni Mufti Rafi al-Rufai. Iraq’s Shi’a and Sunnis are united in their support for peaceful negotiations between the KRG and Baghdad:

        http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020176
        Oct. 1, 2017: “Erbil welcomes initiative by Iraq’s Ayatollah Sistani for peaceful negotiations ERBIL, Kurdistan Region—The Political Leadership of the Kurdistan Region has welcomed a call by Iraq’s Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani for
        dialogue as something positive that goes in line with the Kurdish position on resolving disagreements with the central government through peaceful negotiations.

        Representatives of Kurdish parties said in a public statement on Sunday that Ayatollah Sistani’s “call is an important step to protect our principles which are the protection of peace, social security and uprooting violence and threats.”
        http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020176

        http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020177 Oct. 1, 2017 45 minutes later: “Iraq’s mufti says Baghdad’s
        ‘oppressions’ pushed Kurdistan to seek independence ERBIL, Kurdistan – The mufti of Iraq’s Sunni community said
        the Iraqi governments’ oppressions against the Kurds made the nation seek independence. He also said Iraq has become a sectarian state run by Iranian politicians.

        Rafi al-Rufai said through his representative Abdulwahab Ani, that Baghdad’s “baseless” decision
        to cut the Kurdistan Region’s budget share in 2014, …He also highly appreciated the Kurdistan Region for hosting over a million internally displaced persons and refugees when fleeing ISIS.

        “And you want to impose sanctions on Kurds, fight with them and close air and ground ports on them?” he asked.

        Rejecting comments from the Iraqi government authorities who accuse the Kurdsitan Region of partitioning Iraq.

        “The Iraqi government and its parliament, you should cry and not talk for the integrity of Iraq. You yourself partitioned it.”

        The Iraqi Mufti went on to slam the Iraqi government’s “sectarian” police. “The main dangerous thing that these governments carried with them was the disgusting sectarianism which partitioned the integrity of this country and spread hatred among the components of this country,” he said.

        “Those running and ruling Iraq are associated with Iranian politicians,.” said the Sunni cleric. “among those is
        [Iran’s]Qassem Solaimani.” …” http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/011020177

        Oct. 1, 2017 10:00 am EDT SULAIMANI, Kurdistan Region http://www.rudaw.net/english/culture/01102017
        https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/d5dddb8473f8e961e4a4b3d6770321c79fccfb893f23546270a958cb1e6e65b7.jpg
        The 2017 International Sulaimani Film Festival. Photo Rudaw “Sulaimani Int’l Film Festival kicks off amid flight ban By A.C. Robinson … The theme this year is “Culture and Coexistence”. …” http://www.rudaw.net/english/culture/01102017

        Sept. 28, 2017: Russia’s President Putin was in Ankara on Sept. 28 for consultations with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, just three days after the referendum vote. … Russian Foreign Ministry’s statement, which included the
        phrase “Moscow respects the national aspirations of the Kurds” and the hope for a “constructive and respectful dialogue, with a view to devising a mutually acceptable formula of coexistence within a single Iraqi state,”
        http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/10/putin-boxed-in-iran-turkey-iraq-kurdistan-referendum.html

        Adding that the KRG continues to guarantee the security of the Mosul Dam on the Tigris River. I recall TAI covered that huge risk to Baghdad in 2016.

        Good news from Sept. 6, 2017: “Milestones reached in Mosul Dam repairs 6 September, 2017 By Emily Ashwell
        The main spillway on the Mosul Dam in Iraq has reopened a year after Italian engineering giant Trevi started repairs on the structure.

        Last year the US Embassy in Iraq raised concerns that the
        dam faces a “serious and unprecedented risk of catastrophic failure” with
        little warning. It said that if the 11.1bn.m3 dam collapses, some areas could
        be inundated by up to 21m of water within hours. The risk came after a
        so-called Islamic State attack on the facility in August 2014 and the
        subsequent disruption of maintenance operations. …

        Some 6,000 tons of solid injections have been carried out.
        Trevi has had a bespoke automated injecting management system designed.

        Now water levels at the dam are at the same level of 2005 and the spillway has reopened.

        The residential area includes more than one thousand beds,
        17 office buildings and even a pizzeria….”
        https://www.newcivilengineer.com/world-view/milestones-reached-in-mosul-dam-repairs/10023143.article

        https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/b5ebfd0187be6c36e54e6939f5841f2ededb7c6b580c7b4ec928a4732c8dd461.jpg
        October 2015 Iraq watershed water-from-the-euphrates-and-tigris-rivers-is-shared-by-turkey-syria-and-Iraq

        Turkey, Syria, and Iraq have had many meetings to resolve

        water issues since the 1960’s, but this review stops in
        2003. Other reports

        have some meetings until 2011, when Syria’s civil war
        started.

        http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Tigris-Euphrates_New.htm

        The Mosul dam was a great concern when ISIS took over Mosul, but the Kurds never let ISIS get control of the dam.
        Iraqi Kurds would be ideal arbiters of the water issues between Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. It is probably why Syria is now open to negotiation with Rojava after ISIS is destroyed. A good way for Iraqi Kurds to
        ‘change the conversation’ would be to call for a quadri-lateral with Turkey,Iraq, and Syria

        on water allocation of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

        America has good career diplomats in Baghdad and Erbil. No one has yet been nominated for the USA Ambassador to Turkey. We do not have diplomatic relations with Syria and Iran.

        Perhaps a water quadri-lateral was what Putin discussed with Erdogan on Sept. 28, because, after all, Russia can talk with everyone, including Iran, Syria, the KRG, and Rojava.

        The KRG is much more likely to hook up with Syrian Kurdish
        Rojava than be Turkey’s pawn, once ISIS is defeated and destroyed along the
        Euphrates River in Syria.

        So sad to always read the negative fear of American ‘analysis’ through the lens of the USA being the sole decider/facilitator on earth.

        It was good to see Amb. Terry Branstad sitting next to Sec Tillerson in China discussions in the news today.
        https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/4c6920bc8dc66de59b88e82e383be27d601559d6c0e3f370f0300e9773d9720f.png

    • Yes, and at least more Kurds are relatively pro-American. Most Turks, on the other hand, actually hate our guts despite our being “allies” with their country.

  • Fat_Man

    Facepalm. Does just entering the State Department Building kill brain cells? We just stiffed our only friends in the area. Just to please Iranian run Iraq, and the vile Turks. Stupid, Stupid, Stupid.

  • WigWag

    Nonsense. The enemies of the Kurds are enemies of the United States. That includes Iran, the Central Government in Iraq and most definitely our faux-NATO ally, Turkey. If there was a war it was ever actually in the interests of the United States to fight, it would be a war to create an independent Kurdistan from the Kurdish regions in Iraq, Syria, Iran and Turkey.

    If we did this, inside of a decade or two Kurdistan would be as valuable an ally in the Middle East as Israel is. Given the fact that both the Arab world and Iran are destined to collapse and given that Turkey’s turn towards Islam insures a bleak future for the country, the U.S. could use a second enforcer in that part of the world. Kuridistan could be that enforcer.

    Tillerson and McMaster are both pond scum from the single greatest swamp in America: the swamp inhabited by an elite so feckless and stupid that they never get anything right.

    Remind me again, Andrew, why the United States has invested so much time talent and treasure to promote the independence of the criminals of Kosovo from Serbia but is aghast at the prospect of independence of the Kurds of Iraq.

    No civilized people (and the Kurds are certainly civilized) should be expected to live in comity with the Sunni and Shia in Iraq. With the exception of the Kurdish region, Iraq is a cesspool. Asking the Kurds to forgo independence is not only immoral; even worse, its stupid.

    • Tom

      “Protect the “criminals” of Kosovo from the actually criminal Serbs.”

      FTFY.

    • Why are the Kosovars criminals though? I thought the Serbs were the aggressors in the Yugoslavian wars, against an ethnic minority, much like the Turks against the Kurds.

      • Tom

        Wigwag, like some of the other commentators here, has come to the conclusion that if the dispute involves Muslims on one side and non-Muslims on the other, then the Muslims is *always* in the wrong.
        No, it doesn’t make any sense to me, either.

  • Charles Martel

    The completely unprincipled approach of the West to national self-determination is an embarrassment. Having supported Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence, despite the fact that the UN Security Council had explicitly guaranteed Serbia’s territorial integrity, it is ridiculous to refuse to support national self-determination on the part of Kurdistan.

    Of course, the correct approach would be to say that the right to self-determination does not exist – but Woodrow Wilson and the USA’s own revolutionary origins have committed the US to this foolhardy proposition. So the possibility of independence is held open, creating instability, but there is no consistency.

    The Kurds have a very good case for independence – the Iraqi government has refused to meet its constitutional obligations to Kurdistan, and there is no doubt that the Kurds have historically been exploited and repressed by various regional governments. Moreover, the USA (and the West in general) owes precisely nothing to the central governments of Turkey, Iran, Syria or Iraq. On a purely pragmatic basis, the independence of Kurdistan would be a boon for western interests in the region.

  • Anthony

    Twentieth century decisions yet impacting twenty-first century world: the legacy of the post-World War I Wilsonian settlement left unfinished in the wake of World War II and theoretical ending of Cold War.

    Another view: “We talk about nationalism as if it comes in good and bad varieties – good if it is liberating, bad if it is aggressive or oppressive. But fundamentally, nationalism is not a principle to be embraced if good or rejected if bad. It is a natural force in human affairs, and like any natural force it can have good or bad effects – or both simultaneously.” ( theweek.com/articles/726854/kurdistan-problem-endless-parade-new-nation-states )

  • Attila_the_hun

    Regardless what The USA does or doesn’t. Current ME map will be redrawn along ethnic, religion and geographical boundaries. Iraq and Syria of the 20th century no longer exist. Anyone who thinks s/he can keep those countries as once were is delusional. So is Erdo of Turkey. who thinks he can stop the Kurdish momentum both in Iraq and Syria, furthermore inside Turkey’s borders.
    The best The USA can do is to get ahead of the game and start thinking on how can help redrawing the new map without too much bloodshed. If ME Muslim players are left on their own devices the human cost will incalculable. If you think current refugee problem is too big, you didn’t see nothing yet.

  • Alan Wiseman

    We have a moral obligation to support Long-Suffering Kurds
    They have proved to be the worthy partner in the fight against ISIS and the only nation
    in the Middle East who is capable to live in peace with Christians and Jews

    • We should also be helping the Assyrians, who are one of the few surviving Christian peoples in the Middle East, and maybe the Yazidis as well!

  • FriendlyGoat

    “America First” is not without meaning. We can pretend to be allied with this one and that one—–until—–we say (with new policy), nah, we never gave a hoot about you.

    • Anthony

      This is off topic but an important matter to consider if you’re interested in constraining the “inane to profane” string (we are living in a brave new world of disinformation): https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/fake-news-government-inadequate-responses-by-kelly-born-2017-10

      • FriendlyGoat

        Ultimately, individual citizens will need legal remedy against the corporations who participate in destroying their societies—–BUT—-the chances of getting such in the USA is nil for the foreseeable future. We will hold corporations’ right to lie to us with “free speech” (for paper entities) above any value for whether our populace is being made into fools.

        • Anthony

          What caught my attention (in addition to concern you referenced) is “political discourse is no longer based on a common set of facts.”

          • FriendlyGoat

            Yes, and if the incorporated platforms and communication companies which distribute the falsehoods are held harmless, the condition described in your quotation marks will remain on a permanent basis. There will/would be no way for society to “pull back” from this disseminated confusion, and we’re discovering that we are already deeper in this mud than we thought.

          • Anthony

            The responses we craft will remain inadequate – yes, unless as you imply, action is taken to break the vicious cycle. Born’s six insights provide (at least for me) a contemporary heads up.

          • FriendlyGoat

            The insights are fine. The remedy is harder. It involves finding a way to hold corporations more accountable for disseminating false information. If we can’t do it, we will discover that corporations have far more freedom than the mere citizens who cannot out-yell them in the messaging game.

          • Anthony

            Age old problem (in America) as you know. As a matter of fact since Adolph Berle and Gardiner Means wrote their classic analysis (1932) of the American corporation, the modern corporation has held sway and posed citizen conundrums. In reality, the existing political system responds primarily to the powers and needs of the corporate system. Now, Born’s insights frame task ahead but organization not computer back and forth will avail stepping stone towards countervailing your implication. Also, excuse 18 hour delay in reply – other matters had to be attended to.

          • FriendlyGoat

            Hope everything is okay with those other matters. On the corporations, we have not had too much counter-argument AGAINST concepts like required truth in lending, truth in product advertising, truth in disclosure of product contents—-even, until lately, a fair amount of confidence in the words from major media. We have been comfortable in expecting more truth from corporations than from individuals and willing to legislate, as needed, to assure it.

            Now, we need to take a look at whether we can require a vehicle like Facebook to put in as much effort toward policing itself as Wikipedia appears to do? How much does it cost the rest of us when too many in our society are misled? Can we afford to live with crazy people who wouldn’t be as crazy without the “wild west of false influence” spewing out of these “platforms”. When the speech on Facebook isn’t the actual speech of Facebook itself, but is amplified by Facebook, what constitutional theory is available for turning down the volume or filtering out the static at the amplifier level? I don’t know, but when stupidity is rising to an intolerable level, someone needs to start asking.

          • Anthony

            “When stupidity is rising to an intolerable level, someone needs to start asking….” Indeed! And more than just a “someone” – WRM has an essay at New York Magazine echoing you. Sometime ago you and I recalled Meneken’s Boobosie; I think you’re still hitting that description but only highlighting the affect of propagandized social media. It appears that people are torn about what they have always wanted to believe and the contradictions they see or experience in real life – digital technologies have made (for many) the tensions (being torn) exacerbated as well as created a false longing (which is what I believe you are getting at). Hard questions need asking.

            And thanks for inquiring, all things are fine just family and business housekeeping attended to (however, getting old ain’t no fun – recognizing completely the real alternative).

          • Anthony

            washingtonmonthly.com/2017/10/03/why-the-1-percent-needs-google-and-facebook/

          • FriendlyGoat

            The one antidote to all this is separating churchism from Republicanism. I am not hopeful that it can be done, but I know WHO the Kochs et al absolutely, positively cannot do without for vote support.

          • Anthony

            Indeed. But what jumped out at me is “bot networks (I think we have had some here at TAI) are used to intimidate users, fabricate social consensus, manipulate trending topics, propagate disinformation and manipulate public opinion.”

          • FriendlyGoat

            It is to my utter astonishment that the church folks are biting on this stuff and voting based on this stuff. We (or bots) cannot expect to go out and make science fiction fans all think one way politically, —–or joggers, or foodies, or travel aficionados, or history buffs, or soccer moms (as they said a few election cycles back). But if the hobby is church, the Republicans have learned to shoot fish in a barrel. I know what it is. I don’t know how to fix it. Consider that Trump has performed about an embarrassment a week for a couple of years running. None of his church supporters are even fazed in the least by these—-to the point Trump himself opined that he could shoot people on fifth avenue and not lose votes. He gets it. His secular opponents do not.

          • Anthony

            “He gets it. His secular opponents do not.” Well, George Orwell defined this mind-set as identifying yourself with a movement, placing it beyond good and evil and recognizing no other duty than advancing its interests. The mind-set may be typified by self-contradiction and indifference to reality. Also, perhaps, the unintended consequence of conflating entertainment and information mixed with digital technology facilitates not only mind-set but also “biting” referenced.

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