Policymakers with an eye on reducing healthcare costs, take heed! Researchers at the University of Iowa may have uncovered a low-cost alternative to radiological oncologists. The Beeb reports:
Pigeons, with training, did just as well as humans in a study testing their ability to distinguish cancerous from healthy breast tissue samples.
The pigeons were able to generalise what they learned, correctly spotting tumours in unseen microscope images. […]
After two weeks of training, the pigeons reached a level of 85% accuracy. Because they successfully identified cancerous tissue from images they had not seen before, the researchers ruled out rote-learning of the images as an explanation.
“The birds were remarkably adept at discriminating between benign and malignant breast cancer slides,” said lead author Prof Richard Levenson, from the University of California, Davis.
The researchers used operant conditioning to teach the pigeons how to spot cancerous tissue, providing rewards for each correctly identified image. Both the experimental design and the choice to use pigeons harken back to the work of B.F. Skinner, who famously developed the method of positive and negative reinforcement in an attempt to show that human behavior is dictated by social conditioning rather than free will. Skinner also somewhat infamously tried to harness the ability that pigeons have for image recognition and sensory processing to help in the fight against Hitler. During the Second World War, he received $25,000 from the NRDC to study how successful pigeons may be as pilots for guided bombs. The plan was, alas, ultimately passed on in favor of newly developed electronic guidance systems.
Ultimately, the same logic holds here: if pigeons can do this, computers certainly can, too. We are not experts in the field, but it appears that machine learning techniques are making significant strides in this direction. We desperately need a way to cut health care costs, and an aggressive move to shift as much of the work as possible to smarter machines—or even pigeons who will probably work for chickenfeed—needs to be part of our national strategy.