“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the ‘true meaning’ of its creed: we hold these ‘truths’ to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” Therein, Peter Berger, lies “what’s in a name”. That is, the human desire towards justice – the moral arc (though our society has allowed both Mission creep and Victimology to corrupt idea). I think Steven Pinker has defined what you ask as the expanding circle. At some level the aspirants cataloged in essay have linked name connotation with our system of belief and concluded that what they are being called is indeed the “thing” (with all its inherited denotations and connotations). What may be happening consciously or unconsciously is a confluence of humanistic values which privileges human flourishing (both secular and sectarian). This may be inferred from transformation of human life by science, technology, and reason (essentially, modernity). Yet, you are on to something when you say deliver us from the sea of names.
The National Football
League team Washington Redskins will play the Minnesota Vikings tomorrow night
(Nov 7), in
Minneapolis. The American Indian
Movement will be in full dungeon
about the name. A sea of names plagues the logic of
this discussion as well. An ocean of meanings that change over
time does as well.
It is the meanings that
live on that create the controversies and demonstrate that not many are
this Blog came out this morning, another blog discussed it this
morning as well (by Ron Edwards, http://www.TheMinneapolisStory.com). His
column about the Redskins controversy, “Mr. Bellecourt is
“Redskins” Controversy” discusses the campaign of
now in his
late 70s. I know him, and I knew his
brother Vernon back in the
protest days of the early 70s at the Bureau of Indian Affairs, especially
modern day Wounded Knee “event.” Ron Edwards is a mutual friend of ours.
Clyde will be at the meeting Berger refers to between the NFL and the Oneida
Indian Nation. Berger’s aside regarding
whether it is its foreign ministry is but another name in the sea of truth
claims and who claims to have the truth.
Edwards and Bellecourt
give us another example of Voegelin’s “The order of history emerges from the
history of order.” Here is a paragraph
from Edward’s blog that I doubt many
Americans taking sides on this issue are aware of, that adds not only to the
sea of names but the sea of meanings behind the name, its own syllogism dagger:
“George Preston Marshall, the
gave the team its name in 1932, was a leader in the NFL movement that
banned Blacks, league wide, in 1933, a ban not lifted until
Before the Washington
integrated in 1962, Jim Brown, as one Jewish sport writer liked to write,
the Washington end zone’. Marshall always
“Dixie” before the “Star Spangled Banner.”
After the NFL
integrated, Marshall said he would “start signing Negroes when the Harlem
Globetrotters start signing whites.” Marshall died in 1969, leaving most of his
money to the creation of the Redskins Foundation, stipulating that none of its
money be directed to ‘any purpose which supports
or employs the principle of
racial integration in any form.’”
he would “never” change the name.
Thus, Edwards asks if the Jewish owner of
the Washington team would be OK with calling it “The Washington Kikes”?
Are we not in the middle of “it all depends
on whose ox gets gored,” with the big gore being one’s (or one’s group’s) sense
of respect getting gored, with “no respect” being another name for
How do we respond to this
next statement by Edwards, from the sea of names we call our perspectives/opinions/beliefs:
religious, secular, political, and/or ideological: “ All people have feelings
and sensitivity about how they are referred to. Mr.
Bellecourt and the Native
American nation have indicated it is never acceptable to disrespect by name or
inference the rich, proud history of America’s first nation.”
It is interesting that in
Canada, the word “Indian” is not used, nor “native Canadian.” Rather, they use
the term: First Nation.” They also use the term aboriginal. In Canadian
business there is the name of a position in business called “Aboriginal
Certainly part of the evolution of “meaning” regarding names
depends on age, not only of young people vs. their elders, but also in
time. Thus “Christian” was once a
pejorative, as was “Roman Catholic”
(by which Protestants meant not a “universal” church but a “Roman” (Italian)
All this reminds us of the
debates begun with the 95 Theses (actually 2 centuries into the debate). Some say Philipp Melanchthon made up the hammer and nail story. Regardless, the
printed circulation took
For those of us who still
think highly of the Reformation (more names: “Renaissance,” which means
“reformation;” and “restoration,” the claim of the Mormons). When Luther gave his “Here I Stand” response
at the Diet (daily meetings) at Worms, Thomas Carlyle, over 300 years later
called it “the greatest moment in the modern history of man.”
We are now in a sea of
various victim proffered paths to salvation, often at the expense of others’
salvation. As comments in the previous
blog (“Cowboys and Calvinists”) demonstrated, there is indeed a sea of names
for the path to salvation.
Nonetheless, in their own way, each seems to have
the same cheer: “Go team!”
What’s in a name? Some answer: everything. For them, the task of language is not to “cut nature at the joints” (i. e., describe reality accurately) but to construct it. Listen to theologian Don Cupitt: “Many people think of the world as being simply there, inertly factual and independent of us. Not so: since our minds, as minds, work only in language, nothing is real and nothing is there until it has been formed and produced in and by language” (“Creation out of Nothing,” p. 194). A rose wouldn’t smell just as sweet by any other name; it wouldn’t even exist.
No wonder the language police are so obsessed with politically correct language. There is no inviolable human dignity we can have in mind even as we say “Redskin” or “Indian.” If we don’t get the language “right” (as defined by the language police), all is lost. The language is all there is. Let’s keep changing it, so no one can become comfortable! I once had a student who referred to black South Africans as “African Americans.” When she realized her mistake, she could find no politically correct way to remedy it and fell silent in confusion and on the defensive. Mission accomplished. There was a time when one could avoid the charge of racism by not using deliberately offensive slurs. Now one is a racist if one hasn’t downloaded Politically Correct Language 7.1. But lots of ordinary folks have figured out that the language police are not morally authoritative but hypocritical in claiming to enforce respect for something they don’t believe exists.
There is no doubt, of course, that language is important in interpreting, framing, spinning, and revealing reality. Berger has written a good deal about the sociolinguistic construction of reality. But, unlike Cupitt, he does not try to usurp God’s power to “create out of nothing.”
Dear Peter Berger.
This is not a comment, but actually a letter, as I don’t know how to
address You otherwise.
To make it short and clear: A am a 69 years old sociologist from Denmark,
Copenhagen. I have no distinct merits to present, but quite early I began
to read your books, and with much pleasure.
In fact, I began to translate one of them: “A Rumour Of Angels”. This book
is not widely recognized in Denmark, but I find it very interesting: Your
concept “signals of transcendence” compares well to a danish theologist
and philosopher named K.E. Løgstrup. Born in 1905 he was a major
intellectual in Denmark until his death in 1981. His concept of “suveræne
livsytringer”, “sovereign/supreme expressions of life” seems to bee
similar or maybe even identical with your “signals of transcendence”.
The translation has never been finished, but now I have found time to
continue the job.
Will you approve my attempt? And how do we proceed?
Kindly, Ole Borg
Strandgaards Alle 138
The Malaysian decision seems bizarre, given that Arabic-speaking Christians have been referring to God as “Allah” since long before Islam existed. Jesus, speaking Aramaic, would also have used “Alah” for “God”. But there is something ironic about the dispute too. I think it’s likely that a substantial majority of American Christian would say that “Allah” is the Muslim deity, who should not be confused with the God of Christianty. In other words, they would agree with the Malaysian court and disagree with Malaysian Christians.
I would be late to the party, except there is no party. A pity, because there ought to be. I don’t know how it is I have so long overlooked Berger. His “Social Construction of Reality” has been in my Amazon cart for a long time. I guess it’s past time I actually had it shipped. For good measure I just added a few others. I have to believe that were Berger a young professor today seeking tenure, blog writings like this would sink his career. As to his question–“Why this change? Could it be a very curious return of the repressed—in this case, of old-fashioned bourgeois etiquette?”–I believe I can answer that. This sort of thing is in evidence all over the place (the place being, of course, the Internet) and has been for some years (decades if you remember history BI). Modern feminist writers (because I can’t be certain of the views of feminists who don’t write, right?), 99% of whom are women (and the 1% who are men are just sickening in their unoriginal obsequiousness) devote themselves to writing about sexuality and gender, topics that in the hands of non-feminists are held by feminists to be mere “social constructs” (though I haven’t yet read Berger’s book, I suspect that he, like me, would never qualify social constructs by the word “mere”). They prescribe a host (truly) of rules for interactions between straight men and women, straight boys and girls (not so much for interactions between Ls and Ls, Gs and Gs, or Ls and Gs; and, to borrow from Berger’s repetoire: when will an L or a G sue over the use of “straiight” as a descriptor of heterosexuals?). In their obsession with sex they are no different from the Puritans, both the actual historical ones and everyone else since whose views of and rules for managing gender contact and sexual conduct tend to what is usually called “prudish.” Feminists ARE the new Puritans, and they seek power and authority to prescribe THEIR rules. And because modern femininsts are, like most modern left-liberals, pure products of the academy, they seek power in, and see power only as reflected in, the prohibition and prescription of words. Just observe the work they have put in lately to the concepts of “sexual assault” and “sexual harrassment,” most especially on college and university campuses (soft targets, those), and you will see a positively militant Puritanism on the march.