Commander James Kraska, JAGC, USN, is the Howard S. Levie Chair of Operational Law serving in the international law department at the U.S. Naval War College and a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. Captain Raul “Pete” Pedrozo, JAGC, USN (ret.), is associate professor in the international law department at the U.S. Naval War College, and served as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Staff Judge Advocate for Commander, U.S. Pacific Command. The views presented do not reflect the official policy or position of the Naval War College, the U.S. Navy or the Department of Defense.