The major intelligence error that presaged the Iraq war and the many errors that followed raise questions about the capacity of the United States to manage complex interventions. They cast a shadow forward on U.S. Middle east policy, as well.
America needs to face squarely a centrally important new global reality: that the world’s population is experiencing a political awakening unprecedented in scope and intensity, with the result that the politics of populism are transforming the politics of power.
Very little of what has happened in American foreign policy since September 11, 2001, has been in any way determined by underlying domestic pressures or constraints, much less by the character of American political culture. The extraordinary circumstances of the Twin Towers and Pentagon attacks gave President Bush great leeway to act. In the immediate […]